Birding Brazil Tours & Nature Photography


Caatinga is characterized by a xeric shrubland with many cacti and thorn forest with isolated enclaves of Atlantic rainforest. The largest dry forest region in South America has 283,600 square miles - twice the size of Montana and certainly one of the richest dry forests in the world. There is not just single caatinga vegetation, but several distinctive caatingas. Caatinga harbors a unique biota and is an important area of endemism for different groups of organisms especially birds. The list includes White-browed Guan, White-collared Kite, Little Wood-Rail, Lear's Macaw, Golden-capped, Cactus and Gray-breasted Parakeet, Bahia Nighthawk, Pygmy Nightjar, Hooded Visobearer, Long-tailed Woodnymph, Hook-billed and Broad-tipped Hermit, Stripe-breasted Starthroat, Spot-backed Puffbird, Spotted Piculet, Kaempfer's Woodpecker, Moustached, Wagler's Woodceeper, Red-shouldered, Bahia, Gray-headed and Pinto's Spinetail, Striated Softail, Pink-legged Graveteiro, Caatinga Cachalote, Alagoa's and Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, Great Xenops, Silvery-cheeked and Caatinga Barred Antshrike, Sincora, Pectoral, Orange-bellied, Narrow-billed, Caatinga, Bahia and Band-tailed Antwren, Slender, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Fringe-backed Fire-eye,White-browed Antpitta, Hooded Gnateater, Bahia and Dimantina Tapaculo, Stresemmann's Bristlefront, Banded and White-winged Cotinga, Black-headed Berryeater, Cinnamon-vented Phia, Buff-throated Purpletuft, Araripe Manakin, Gray-backed Tachuri, Minas Gerais, Alagoas, Bahia Tyrannulet, Buff-breasted and Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Caatinga Black-Tyrant, Ash-throated Casiornis, Gray-eyed Greenlet, Long-billed Wren, Forbes Blackbird, Pale Baywing, Campo Troupial, Scarlet-throated, Seven-colored Tanager, Red-cowled Cardinal, White-naped Jay, White-throated Seedeater, Pale-throated Pampa-Finch, Yellow-faced Siskin and Sao Francisco Sparrow. With many more overlaps with Southeastern Atlantic rainforest species not mentioned here! Check out our selection of tour photos below!


Itinerary 1: 10 days covering Quixadá - Crato - Canudos - Estância - Salvador.

Itinerary 2: 15 days covering Bahia: Lençóis - Jequié - Boa Nova - Camacan - Porto Seguro - Ituberá.

To cover all the NE birds we suggest a tour with itineraries 1 and 2 together.

Itinerary 3: 9 days covering Bahia: Salvador - Camacan - Jequié - Lençóis.

Caatinga birds

Photos by Andrew Whittaker.
  • Araripe Manakin (endemic)
  • Lear's Macaws (endemic and Endangered in IUCN Red List)
  • Great Xenops (endemic)
  • Spotted Piculet (endemic)
  • Red-shouldered Spinetail (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Lear's Macaws, endemic and Endangered in IUCN Red List.
  • Slender Antbird male (endemic and Endangered in IUCN Red List)
  • Spot-backed Puffbird
  • Bahia Tapaculo (endemic and Critically Endangered in IUCN Red List)
  • Sincora Antwren male (endemic)
  • Velvety Black-Tyrant female (endemic)
  • Red-cowled Cardinal (endemic)
  • Campo Troupial (endemic)
  • Ochraceous Woodpecker
  • Gray-backed Tachuri (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird female stretching
  • Least Pygmy-Owl, also known as Brazilian Pygmy-Owl.
  • Stripe-breasted Starthroat (endemic)
  • Cattle Egret colony
  • Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (bahiae)
  • Black-billed Scythebill singing
  • Cactus Parakeets
  • Biscutate Swift
  • Pale-throated Pampa-Finch (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Caatinga Cacholote. Check the paper "The Rufous Cacholote (Furnariidae: Pseudoseisura) is two species" in Andrew's bio. This was one split from Rufous and the other split being Grey-crested Cacholote.
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet
  • Striated Softtail singing (endemic and Vulnerable in IUCN Red List)
  • Blue Dacnis male
  • Flavescent Warbler
  • Hooded Visorbearer male (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Hooded Visorbearer female (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • White-necked Thrush
  • Violaceous Euphonia male
  • Spot-billed Toucanet male
  • Tolmomyias sp. novum. Kevin Zimmer and Andrew Whittaker are about to submit the description of this species.
  • Stripe-backed Antbird male
  • Sincora Antwren immature (endemic)
  • Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant (Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Red-necked Tanager
  • Plumbeous Antvireo male (endemic and Vulnerable in IUCN Red List)
  • Narrow-billed Antwren male (endemic and Near Threatened in IUCN Red List)
  • Maroon-bellied Parakeets
  • Long-billed Wren (endemic)
  • Green-headed Tanager
  • Green-backed Trogon female
  • Green Honeycreeper male in threat display
  • Gray-headed Spinetail (endemic)
  • Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant (Atlantic Forest endemic)
  • Comb Ducks, Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks and White-faced Whistling-Ducks.
  • Chestnut-crowned Becard
  • Caatinga Antwren male (endemic)
  • Black-capped Antwren female
  • Band-tailed Antwren male (endemic and Vulnerable in IUCN Red List)
  • Azure-shouldered Tanager (endemic)
  • Silvery-cheeked Antshrike male (endemic)
  • Crescent-chested Puffbird (endemic)

Nature Photography